Learn implicits: Views as class extensions

You are using them already: Strings

Posted by Jorge Montero on July 31, 2015

This is the third post in our series on Scala implicits. The earlier posts cover [implicit type parameters](/2015/05/14/implicits-intro/ and [implicit parameters with futures](/2015/06/15/implicits-futures/. In this post, we discuss implicit conversions.

Implicit conversions, also called views, are a powerful and dangerous friend. They are useful for avoiding boilerplate, but used improperly they lead to confusion.

Even if you didn’t know they existed, I bet you’ve used them already. Let’s look at a very simple example, using the scala REPL:

scala> val s = "fluttershy"
s: String = fluttershy

scala> s.getClass.getName
res1: String = java.lang.String

scala> val cap = s.capitalize
cap: String = Fluttershy

scala> cap.getClass.getName
res2: String = java.lang.String

so we have a plain Java String, and we capitalize it. Seems simple. I just called a method on an object. Except java.lang.String does not have a capitalize method! What sorcery is this?

IntelliJ understands capitalize

As IntelliJ tells us, the capitalize method is a part of StringLike.

Somehow our String got converted into a StringLike, to call capitalize . But we didn’t do anything!

Scala automatically imports scala.Predef everywhere. Among many other things, Predef contains:

implicit def augmentString(x : String) : scala.collection.immutable.StringOps

The return type of this method, StringOps, has the StringLike trait which includes the capitalize method.

So what does that implicit def mean?

Any time we try to call a method that doesn’t exist (or when a parameter doesn’t match the expected type), the compiler attempts to use a view to make it match. A view is a single-parameter function or constructor, declared with the implicit keyword in front of it. The implicit keyword tells the compiler that it can use this function automatically, for as long as it is in scope.

It’s almost as if Scala added methods without changing java.lang.String. No manual wrapping: it’s almost invisible. Sounds convenient!

All this power comes with downsides. If a programmer is not familiar with all the views in scope, the code is harder to interpret. There’s also the temptation to define very wide conversions. Everyone does it, and later regrets it. Let’s say that some classes take a lot of Options:

case class Octopus(name : Option[String], tentacles : Option[Int], phoneNumber : Option[String])

val a = Octopus(Some(name), Some(tentacles), Some(phone))

If we always have the data, those Options are just noise, so someone who recently learned views might write something like this:

implicit def optionify[T](t : T):Option[T] = Option(t)

Which lets this call work:

val a = Octopus(name, tentacles, phone)

Sounds great, right? We never have to wrap any values anymore! What’s the worst that could happen?

Wherever that implicit function is in scope, any syntax error that could be fixed by wrapping anything into an Option will be “fixed” that way, whether it makes sense or not.

val aList = List("a","b","c")
val anInt = 42
val something = Octopus("Angry Bob",7,"(888)-444-3333")


List and Option define isEmpty. If you think you have a List, but you really have an Octopus, the compiler will use your view, give you an Option[Octopus], and isEmpty will compile! That’s not what we wanted when we defined our view, but there it is. Add a few more implicits like that to the same scope, and suddenly you might as well be working in a language without types: the compiler stops being useful.

To use this view responsibly, add it to the scope very carefully, just for the code than needs it:

object AutoOption {
   implicit def def optionify[T](t:T):Option[T] = Option(t)

class PutsThingsIntoOptionsAllTheTime{
  import AutoOption._

  ... put code that uses the implicit conversion here ...


In general, views that accept anything at all will be confusing. For example, Scala lets you call + on anything. Predef includes:

implicit def  final class any2stringadd[A](private val self: A) extends AnyVal {
  def +(other: String): String = String.valueOf(self) + other

So this gives every class a + method that lets it concatenate to a String.

scala> Set("1","2","3") + "a gazebo"
res0: scala.collection.immutable.Set[String] = Set(1, 2, 3, a gazebo)

scala> Set(1,2,3) + "a gazebo"
res1: String = Set(1, 2, 3)a gazebo

scala> "a gazebo" + Set(1,2,3)
res2: String = a gazeboSet(1, 2, 3)

scala> Set[Any](1,2,3) + "a gazebo"
res3: scala.collection.immutable.Set[Any] = Set(1, 2, 3, a gazebo)

scala> Some("gazebo") + 3
<console>:8: error: type mismatch;
 found   : Int(3)
 required: String

If this isn’t crazy enough for you, check out this Scala puzzler.

This has annoyed so many people so much that there are plans to remove it in a future version of Scala. If the language authors create troublesome views, the rest of us should take warning.

When creating views, aim to have the seamlessness of capitalize. The view aims to be invisible. Notice that capitalize returns a String; when we benefit from the view, we never see the intermediate StringOps type. Other bonus methods do the same:

trait StringLike {
  def capitalize : String
  def stripMargin(marginChar : Char) : String
  def stripPrefix(prefix : String)

Calling the method does not surprise us. The one way the user can tell that we are using a custom implicit conversion is this subtle underline in IntelliJ:

IntelliJ helps see implicits

capitalize is underlined because the method is added by a view. The 42 is underlined because a Scala Int is converted to a Java Integer using another view defined in Predef.

While overly wide views in an overly wide scope can lead to confusion, views are an invaluable way to extend class functionality with a strong type system, without a bunch of explicit wrapping.

posted on July 31, 2015 by
Jorge Montero